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RAHOTO NA MUSAMMAN A KAN BOKO HARAM: Jini, Hawaye da Fargaba a Daular El-Kanemi - 'Ilmin Boko Haramun Ne' (Babi na 3)


Dubban mata da yara sun gudu zuwa sansanonin ‘yan gudun hijira kamar wannan dake Bole, kusa da babban birnin jihar Adamawa, daya daga cikin jihohin dake karkashin dokar-ta-baci. (VOA/Ibrahim Ahmed)

Dubban mata da yara sun gudu zuwa sansanonin ‘yan gudun hijira kamar wannan dake Bole, kusa da babban birnin jihar Adamawa, daya daga cikin jihohin dake karkashin dokar-ta-baci. (VOA/Ibrahim Ahmed)

Kashe-kashe da zub da jini da tashe-tashen hankula sun zamo ruwan dare a yankin arewa maso gabashin Najeriya a dalilin hare-haren ‘yan Boko Haram. A yayin da wannan tashin hankali ke bazuwa zuwa wasu sassan na Najeriya, har ma da makwabtanta, fargaba tana kara yawaita cewa watakila gwamnatin Najeriya ba ta san yadda zata takali wannan batu ba. Ko kuma tana kara rura wutar fitinar ne ma da kanta.

Harsashin Boko Haram ya samo asali tun daga zamanin mulkin mallaka ma in ji wasu masana, a saboda irin sarkakiyar bambance-bambancen addini, kabila, al’ada, siyasa da sauransu. An samu tashe-tashen hankula da zub da jini a sassan arewacin Najeriya, inda Musulmi da kuma kabilun Hausa, Fulani da Kanuri suka fi rinjaye. Talauci ya fi tsanani a yankin na arewa, ba kamar a kudu ba, inda kabilun Yarbawa da Igbo da kuma Ijaw suke da rinjaye.

Wani mai bincike na kungiyar kare hakkin bil Adama ta Human Rights Watch a Abuja, Mausi Segun, yace “irin wannan tarihi na tsama a tsakanin kabilun Najeriya, shi ne ake gani a wannan tawaye na Boko Haram, da kuma rashin maida martanin da ya kamata wajen murkushe shi.”

A shekarun 1990, lokacin Najeriya ba ta rabu da mulkin soja ba, fassara mai tsauri ta akidar Islama ta fara shiga yankin arewacin Najeriya. A lokacin ne aka fara samun wasu masu tsattsauran ra’ayin da har aka fara kiransu ‘yan Taliban na Najeriya. Amma a lokacin, babu wani tashin hankali ko zub da jinni a koyarwarsu.

A shekarar 1999, sojoji sun mika mulkin Najeriya hannun farar hula. A yankuna da dama na kasar, ‘yan siyasa sun yi ta amfani da malaman addinansu a zaman kafa ta samun goyon bayan siyasa. A jihar Borno, gwamna Ali Modu Sherrif, wanda aka ce ya zamo gwamna da taimakon kungiyoyi kamar na Mohammed Yusuf, ya nada wani jigo na Boko Haram a zaman kwamishinan harkokin addini na jihar.

Shekaru hudu bayan nan, a lokacin da ya sake tsayawa takara, Sherrif ya kawo karshen huldarsa da kungiyar Mohammed Yusuf, inda suka fara takun saka har zuwa watan Yulin shekarar 2009 a lokacin da aka yi babban rikicin Boko Haram na farko aka kashe Mohammed Yusuf a yayin da yake hannun ‘yan sanda. Daga bisani an kashe dubban magoya bayansa a hare-haren da aka yi ta kaiwa kan cibiyoyinsa a jihohi da dama, musamman Borno, Yobe da Bauchi.

An dauka cewa kungiyar Boko Haram ta mutu a lokacin, sai a karshen shekarar 2010, daya daga cikin mataimakan Mohammed Yusuf, Abubakar Shekau, ya fito da wani faifan bidiyo yana bayyana cewa shi ne shugaban kungiyar, yana kuma barazanar kai farmaki kan cibiyoyin gwamnati da jami’anta. A wannan bidiyo, Shekau ya rungumi sabon salo irin na kungiyoyi masu alaka da al-Qa’ida, wajen lafazi da akidarsa.

Kungiyar Boko Haram ta fara kai hare-haren farko kan ofisoshin ‘yan sanda da na sauran jami’an tsaro. Hare-haren bam na mota na farko sun wakana a hedkwatar ‘yan sanda dake Abuja da kuma ofishin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya dake babban birnin. Kungiyar ta fadada wuraren da take kai ma hare-hare daga ofisoshin ‘yan sanda zalla, zuwa ga Masallatai da Coci-Coci har ma da malaman da ba su yarda da akidarta ba. Daya daga cikin wadannan malamai shi ne Sheikh Adam Albani Zaria, shugaban da’awar Salafiyya ta Najeriya, wanda aka kashe a watan Fabrairun wannan shekara.

Tun bayan shekarar 2010, wannan kyamfe na zub da jini ya bazu ya tsallake iyakar Borno da ma Najeriya. Zub da jinin da kungiyar Boko Haram keyi ya samu karin tallafi ko tagomashi, daga abubuwan da suka faru a kasar Mali daga 2011 zuwa 2012 inda ‘yan tawaye masu alaka da al-Qa’ida suka yi kusan kwace kasar kafin sojojin Faransa su ja musu burki a watan Janairun 2013. A wannan lokacin, Boko Haram ta tura mayakanta sansanonin horaswa na arewacin Mali.

Peter Pham na Cibiyar binciken harkokin yau da kullum ta Atlantic Council, yace mayakan Boko Haram, watakila daruruwansu, sun halarci wadannan sansanoni na arewacin Mali inda suka koyi dabarun yaki.

Boko Haram ta nuna alamun kwarewa wajen kai hare-hare masu yawa a lokaci guda. An kashe mutane akalla 42 a wannan harin da Boko Haram ta kai kan garin Bama dake Jihar Borno a watan Mayun 2013. (AP)

Irin huldar da ake zaton Boko Haram tana yi da al-Qa’ida, koda yake ba a tabbatar ba, abin damuwa ne ga kwararru da yawa. Pham yace irin bidiyon da Shekau ke fitarwa a bayan shekarar 2010, sun yi kama sosai da irin tsarin shirya bidiyo na al-Qa’ida.

Watakila kuma akwai wasu mayakan Boko Haram da suka samu horaswa a hannun kungiyar al-Shabab ta Somaliya mai alaka da al-Qa’ida. Irin hare-haren bam na kunar-bakin-wake da kuma wadanda ake dasawa cikin mota, dabarun yaki ne da ba a san su a Najeriya ba, amma kuma dabaru ne da aka san su a wurin al-Qa’ida.

Wannan yana nufin cewa duk da cewa Boko Haram ba ta da kudi irin na al-Qa’ida, dabarunta su na da kaifin wadancan. Sun kuma fi tsanani wajen nuna rashin imani, ta yin amfani da yanka mutane, ko harbe su, ko kai hare-haren bam a wuraren taruwar fararen hula da wasunsu. Wani bidiyon da aka saka a kan intanet a ranar 22 ga watan Yuli, an ce ya nuna yadda ‘yan Boko Haram suke cin zarafin wani sojan sama na Najeriya da suka kama, kafin su yanka shi, su cire masa kai.

“Abinda yake da muhimmanci a yanzu shi ne (‘yan Boko Haram) sun iya kamawa tare da rike garuruwa da yankuna tare da yin amfani da su wajen shiryawa da kai munanan hare-hare a kan wasu yankunan,” in ji Pham.

A ranar 27 Yuli, ‘yan Boko Haram sun kai farmaki a garin Kolofata dake bakin iyaka a cikin Kamaru suka sace matar mataimakin firayim ministan kasar.

Tafiyar awa biyu ne daga Maiduguri zuwa Kolofata. Wannan shi ne hari na uku da suka kai cikin Kamaru a kwanaki uku.

Karin Bayani akan Jini, Hawaye da Fargaba a Daular El-Kanemi >>

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