Former South African president Jacob Zuma appeared Monday before a commission investigating corruption allegations during his presidency.
It was the first time Zuma had appeared before the judicial inquiry since he abandoned his testimony at the hearing more than a year ago.
The 78-year-old did not give any evidence on the graft allegations but lodged an application requesting the head of the judicial commission recuse himself, accusing him of prejudice.
Deputy Chief Justice Raymond Zondo rejected Zuma's claim he was biased against him because they used to be close friends.
Zondo said he only had a cordial relationship with Zuma, but they were not friends.
The commission has no authority to prosecute, however testimony made during the hearing can be used by law enforcement agencies.
The fraud and corruption allegedly occurred from 2009 to 2018 before Zuma was forced to resign by his African National Congress party.
Zuma is also awaiting trial for allegedly taking bribes from French arms manufacturer Thales more than 20 years ago.