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Tarihin Rantsar Da Shugaban Kasa a Amurka


George Washington

Kamar yadda aka saba yi tun shekaru da dama da su ka gabata, yau ma za a rantsar da zababben Shugaban Amurka, Joe Biden. Bukin rantsar da Shugaban Amurka na da tarihi mai tsawo.

A ranar 30 ga watan Afirilun 1789, aka rantsar da Shugaban Amurka na farko, George Washington, a Babban Zauren Tarayya na Federal Hall da ke Birnin New York, Babban Birnin Amurka na farko, inda mai gabatar da rantsuwar, Wazirin New York Robert Livingston, ya bude Littafi Mai Tsarki, ya ce Shugaba Washington ya dafa da hannunsa na dama, aka kuma yi haka, a gaban dubun dubatan jama’a da su ka bazu kan tituna, don su shaidi wannan abin tarihin.

Daga nan sai Shugaban da ‘yan Majalisar kasa, su ka shiga zauren Majalisar Dattawa, inda ya gabatar masu da jawabin farko na Shugaban da aka kaddamar, inda ya roki bishewa daga Allah, wanda ya kira shi “Mai Dukkan Iko, Mamallakin Sama da Kasa” tare da cewa shi ba zai karbi albashi ba.

Sashi na 1 na rubutu na biyu, na kundin tsarin mulkin Amurka, ya bayyana cewa, Shugaban da ake kaddamarwa zai rantse cewa, “Ina mai matukar alkawari cewa, zan gudanar da aikin Shugaban kasar Amurka cikin aminci, kuma zan yi duk abin da na ke iyawa, in adana, in kare tare in kuma tsare Kundin Tsarin Mulkin Amurka.”

Tổng thống Đắc cử Joe Biden tại Wilmington, Delaware, hôm 7/11/2020.
Tổng thống Đắc cử Joe Biden tại Wilmington, Delaware, hôm 7/11/2020.

Vice President-elect Kamala Harris
Vice President-elect Kamala Harris

To shi dai bukin kaddamar da shugaban kasa, al’amari ne mai muhimmanci a Amurka. Kundin Tsarin Mulkin Amurka ya tanaji zaben Shugaban kasa ta tsarin kasafin kuri’u na Electoral College, inda kowace jaha kan samu kaso na wakilan Electoral College masu kada kuri’a, bisa ga adadin ‘yan majalisunta a Majalisar Dokokin kasa. Kowani wakilin zabe zai kada kuri’a guda daga cikin jimlar kuri’u 538. Duk dan takarar da ya samu fiye da rabi, wato 270 ya ci zabe, kamar yadda Joe Biden ya ci a wannan karan.

Kundin tsarin mulki Amurka ya tanaji cewa, Shugaban kasa ya kasance haifaffen Amurka, wanda ya kasance a kasar na tsawon akalla shekaru 14, kuma bai gaza shekaru 35 ba. To amma, Kundin Tsarin Mulkin Kasar bai ce komai kan tsarin bukin kaddamar da Shugaban ka saba.

To saidai, kamar yadda Shugaban na farko, George Washington, ya rantse da Littafi Mai Tsari ko Bible, kusan duk Shugabannin da su ka biyo baya, haka su ka yi. Amma akasari, sun yi amfani ne da Bible din gidansa, inda aka bude masu ayar da ta fi tasiri garesu.

Kuma tun bayan Waziri Livingston, bisa al’ada, Babban Alkalin Kotun Kolin Amurka ne kan rantsar da Shugaban kasa.

A baya, kundin tsarin mulkin Amurka ya tanaji rantsar da Shugaban kasa ne ranar 4 ga watan Maris, saboda wakilan zabe su samu isasshen lokacin harhada sakamakon zabe, kuma a samu lokacin shiryawa don zuwa wurin rantsarwar. To amma ganin an cigaba ta fuskar fasahohin sufuri da sadarawa, sai aka ga babu dalilin daukar lokaci mai yawa, kafin a rantsar da Shugaban kasa. Don haka a shekara ta 1933 sai aka yi gyara ta 20 ga Kundin Tsarin Mulki, wacce ta tanaji rage tsawon lokacin shirin rantsarwar, zuwa ranar 20 ga watan Janairu.

FILE - A raptor flies over Mount Rushmore on March 22, 2019, in Keystone, S.D. From left are former presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln.
FILE - A raptor flies over Mount Rushmore on March 22, 2019, in Keystone, S.D. From left are former presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln.

An fara rantsar da Shugaban kasa ranar a 20 ga watan Janairu ne a shekara ta 1937, wato shekaru hudu bayan kwaskware kundin tsarin mulkin Amurka, a wa’adi na biyu na Shugaba Franklin Roosevelt.

Tun daga kan Shugaba Roosevelt zuwa wannan zamanin, a rana ita yau, wato 20 ga watan Janairu, ake rantsar da Shugaban Amurka, kamar yadda an jima kadan, idan Allah ya so, za a rantsar da Joe Biden.

Kamar yadda a kowani bukin kaddamar da Shugaban kasa, wani abu ko wasu abubuwa, kan fi dauke hankalu, haka ma, wasu bukukuwan kaddamarwar sun fi wasu dauke hankalu.

Alal misali, Shugaba Abraham Lincoln, ya yi amfani da labuzza masu cike da hikimar jan hankali, a jawabinsa na 1865 wajen hada kan Amurkawa, bayan rarrabuwar kawuna, ta yadda har ake ganin yaki na iya barkewa.

Shugaba na 35, John Kennedy, wanda ya zama Shugaba mafi karancin shekaru a 1961, an san shi da kalaman da ke cewa, “Kar ka ce: me kasarka za ta yi ma ka, amma: me za ka yi wa kasarka.” Bayan da hasken rana ya yi ta dauke masa ido, sai kawai ya yi watsi da rubutacciyar takarda, ya shiga magana da ka, wacce ta girgiza Amurka.

Ranar 20 ga watan Janairun 2009, aka kaddamar da Shugaban kasa bakar fata na farko, Barack Obama, a wani buki mai cike da tarihi, wanda ya dada armashi saboda iya lafazi irin na Shugaba Obama, wanda har ya sa wasu Amurkawa, musamman bakaken fata, hawaye.

Preparations are made prior to a dress rehearsal for the 59th inaugural ceremony for President-elect Joe Biden and Vice President-elect Kamala Harris at the US Capitol on January 18, 2021 in Washington, DC. - The Inauguration is scheduled for January 20,
Preparations are made prior to a dress rehearsal for the 59th inaugural ceremony for President-elect Joe Biden and Vice President-elect Kamala Harris at the US Capitol on January 18, 2021 in Washington, DC. - The Inauguration is scheduled for January 20,

An yi ittifakin cewa Shugaba Washington ne ya taba gabatar da jawabin Shugaban kasa mafi gajarta mai kalmomi 135, a wa’adinsa na biyu a 1793 a birnin Philadelphia na jahar Pennsylvania, wanda ya zama babban birnin Amurka na wuccin gadi, yayin da ake tsara birnin Washington DC. Shugaba William Henry Harrison, shi ne ya gabatar da jawabi mafi tsawo a 1841, mai kalmomi 8,455, da ya shafe kusan sa’o’i biyu yana karantawa.

Yau ma da za a rantsar da Shugaban Amurka na 46, akwai wasu abubuwan tarihi: Mataimakiyarsa, Kamala Harris, ita ce mace ta farko, kuma bakar fata ta farko da ta zama Mataimakiyar Shugaban kasa. Sannan, kamar yadda ya faru sau uku a baya, a wannan karon ma, Shugaba mai barin ado, Donald Trump, zai kaurace ma bukin rantsar da wanda zai gaje shi.

Don haka ba mamaki karin wasu abubuwan tarihi su bayyana, a lokacin kaddamar da Biden, musamman ma a jawabinsa ga Amurkawa, ganin yadda aka yi jina jina a Majalisar Dokokin kasa, bayan da magoya bayan Trump su ka kutsa ciki, a lokacin tabbatar da zaben Biden din.

Don haka ana hasashen cewa, mai yiwuwa Biden ya bi sahun Shugaba Lincoln, wajen amfani da lafuzzan hadin kan kasa:

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